Table 1 Simulation parameters. \(K_{e}\) and \(K_{i}\) are the amplitudes of excitatory and inhibitory lateral connections, respectively; \(\sigma _{e}\) and \(\sigma _{i}\) are the variances of excitatory and inhibitory lateral connections, respectively; τ is the decay time constant, dt is the integration time step in ms, t is the simulation time in seconds, and γ is the learning rate. In each epoch, one stimulus is presented to the model