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Fig. 12 | The Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience

Fig. 12

From: A showcase of torus canards in neuronal bursters

Fig. 12

Dynamics of the WCI system (Equations 9a-9c) at r x =4.76. (a)-(d) Time series of the voltage variable x at several values of k, with k decreasing from top to bottom. The traces in frames (a) and (b) are at the same value of k and illustrate bistability. (e) Bifurcation diagram upon variations of parameter k, including branches of fixed points (black curve) and periodic orbits (two red curves, indicating maximal and minimal values of x over the orbit). Solid/dashed curves indicate stable/unstable solutions. The torus bifurcation at k0.7580 is supercritical. At smaller values of k, direct numerical simulations show that the system exhibits bursting (□, indicating maximal and minimal values of x) and AM spiking (, indicating extrema of the modulation envelope).

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